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Cell:每个人的皮肤微生物群高度稳定

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《Cell》杂志五月五日发表的一项宏基因组研究显示,我们皮肤表面的微生物群体一直是高度稳定的。这些小家伙包裹着我们,就像一个无形的“小宇宙”。

 
我们皮肤上的细菌、真菌和病毒大多是无害的,甚至还有益健康。不过也有些微生物与皮肤疾病有关,比如痤疮、银屑病和湿疹。迄今为止,人们还不清楚皮肤微生物组发生的变化,以及这些变化对人类健康的影响。美国国家癌症研究所的Heidi Kong和人类基因组研究所的Julie Segre此前在宏基因组研究中发现,细菌、真菌和病毒对特定皮肤位点有很强的偏好。而且每个人都有自己独特的皮肤微生物组,就像一种“微生物指纹”。现在,他们通过一项新研究分析了皮肤微生物群落的稳定性。
 
研究人员在2年内多次对12名健康人的17个皮肤位点进行取样, 并对这些样本进行宏基因组鸟枪测序。令人惊讶的是,虽然皮肤微生物组经常受到外界因素的干扰,但人体依然能保持自己的微生物特征。当然,在不同个体之间,皮肤微生物组的稳定性是有差异的。就算是同一个人身上,有些部位的皮肤微生物组也更加多变,比如脚和其他容易潮湿的部位。这项研究的发现可以帮助人们更好的理解皮肤病,在此基础上开发相应的微生物疗法。
 
参阅文献:
Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome
Cell, Volume 165, Issue 4, 5 May 2016, Pages 854–866
 
Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. To explore these factors’ contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Analyzing these samples using a multi-kingdom, reference-based approach, we found that despite the skin’s exposure to the external environment, its bacterial, fungal, and viral communities were largely stable over time. Site, individuality, and phylogeny were all determinants of stability. Foot sites exhibited the most variability; individuals differed in stability; and transience was a particular characteristic of eukaryotic viruses, which showed little site-specificity in colonization. Strain and single-nucleotide variant-level analysis showed that individuals maintain, rather than reacquire, prevalent microbes from the environment. Longitudinal stability of skin microbial communities generates hypotheses about colonization resistance and empowers clinical studies exploring alterations observed in disease states.
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