当前位置:首页 > 生物研究 > 微生物学 > 正文

Nature:肠道微生物培养揭示更多信息

 5月4日在《Nature》杂志发表的一项最新研究中,惠康基金会桑格研究所的科学家们,已经培养和分类了超过130种来自人类肠道的细菌。

 
桑格研究所和澳大利亚Hudson医学研究所的Sam Forster博士说:“我们从这些细菌生成的广泛的基因组数据库,对于研究肠胃病患者体内存在或缺乏哪些细菌,也是必不可少的。现在,我们可以开始设计治疗候选细菌的混合物,用于这些疾病。”
 
研究人员还首次研究了肠道内产孢菌的比例。孢子是一种休眠形式的细菌,可允许一些细菌潜伏很长一段时间。他们发现,一个健康人大约三分之一的肠道微生物群可产生孢子,从而使细菌能够在露天存活,并可能在人之间传播流动。这提供了一种此前没有考虑到的微生物群传播方式,可能意味着健康和某些疾病可被传播——不仅仅是通过人类遗传学,而且还通过微生物组。
 
参阅文献:

Culturing of ‘unculturable’ human microbiota reveals novel taxa and extensive sporulation
 
Nature (2016) doi:10.1038/nature17645. Published online 04 May 2016
 
Our intestinal microbiota harbours a diverse bacterial community required for our health, sustenance and wellbeing. Intestinal colonization begins at birth and climaxes with the acquisition of two dominant groups of strict anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Culture-independent, genomic approaches have transformed our understanding of the role of the human microbiome in health and many diseases1. However, owing to the prevailing perception that our indigenous bacteria are largely recalcitrant to culture, many of their functions and phenotypes remain unknown3. Here we describe a novel workflow based on targeted phenotypic culturing linked to large-scale whole-genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and computational modelling that demonstrates that a substantial proportion of the intestinal bacteria are culturable. Applying this approach to healthy individuals, we isolated 137 bacterial species from characterized and candidate novel families, genera and species that were archived as pure cultures. Whole-genome and metagenomic sequencing, combined with computational and phenotypic analysis, suggests that at least 50–60% of the bacterial genera from the intestinal microbiota of a healthy individual produce resilient spores, specialized for host-to-host transmission. Our approach unlocks the human intestinal microbiota for phenotypic analysis and reveals how a marked proportion of oxygen-sensitive intestinal bacteria can be transmitted between individuals, affecting microbiota heritability.
阅读次数:  

发表评论