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服用大豆补充剂不能减轻女性更年期症状

美国研究发现,服用大豆补充剂,可能并没有减轻女性更年期症状的作用,或是防止出现更年期骨质疏松的作用。

自从女性健康研究组织(WHI)对荷尔蒙替代治疗的研究发现,使用雌激素和孕激素会增加心脏病和癌症的风险以后,女性就没有针对更年期问题的明确疗法,因此,没有风险的大豆补充剂受到了欢迎。

但是,美国迈阿密大学米勒医学院的莱维斯和研究同伴近期在《内科学文献》(Archives of Internal Medicine)发表调查报告指出,那些连续两年每天服用大豆补充剂的女性,跟服用安慰剂的对照组相比,更年期症状没有任何改善。

莱维斯小组将248名进入更年期的妇女分为两个小组,其中一半的人每天服用200毫克大豆补充剂,这个分量是富含大豆饮食的2倍;另一部分则服用安慰剂,时间都是2年。

这些参加者多为拉美裔,其中182人完成了全部过程。

在两年的随访中,发现这两组人脊柱和髋部的骨密度流失数量相同,她们报告出现更年期症状的数量也差不多,只是大豆补充剂组出现潮红(flash)的女性少一些。在安慰剂组有32%、补充剂组有48%的女性没有出现潮红。

补充剂组一些人发生了胃和消化问题,比如便秘,但没有严重的与补充及有关的副作用。

英文论文摘要:

Soy Isoflavones in the Prevention of Menopausal Bone Loss and Menopausal Symptoms

Background  Concerns regarding the risk of estrogen replacement have resulted in a significant increase in the use of soy products by menopausal women who, despite the lack of evidence of the efficacy of such products, seek alternatives to menopausal hormone therapy. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of soy isoflavone tablets in preventing bone loss and menopausal symptoms.

Methods  The study design was a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial conducted from July 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Women aged 45 to 60 years within 5 years of menopause and with a bone mineral density T score of –2.0 or higher in the lumbar spine or total hip were randomly assigned, in equal proportions, to receive daily soy isoflavone tablets, 200 mg, or placebo. The primary outcome was changes in bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck at the 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included changes in menopausal symptoms, vaginal cytologic characteristics, N -telopeptide of type I bone collagen, lipids, and thyroid function.

Results  After 2 years, no significant differences were found between the participants receiving soy tablets (n = 122) and those receiving placebo (n = 126) regarding changes in bone mineral density in the spine (–2.0% and –2.3%, respectively), the total hip (–1.2% and –1.4%, respectively), or the femoral neck (–2.2% and –2.1%, respectively). A significantly larger proportion of participants in the soy group experienced hot flashes and constipation compared with the control group. No significant differences were found between groups in other outcomes.

Conclusions  In this population, the daily administration of tablets containing 200 mg of soy isoflavones for 2 years did not prevent bone loss or menopausal symptoms.

 

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