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2007年11月29日Nature中文摘要
封面故事:核孔复合物的结构
Determining the architectures of macromolecular assemblies / The
molecular architecture of the nuclear pore complex
核孔复合物在细胞中起关键作用,它是细胞质与细胞核内物质输送活动的看护
者。它是一种大型超级分子复合物,由多个版本的大约30种不同蛋白组成——总
共至少有450个蛋白分子。细胞生物学家将会非常想知道这些分子中的每一个是
怎样放置到各自的位置而构成核孔的,但迄今为止,传统的结构研究却未能弄清
这一点。不过现在,一种复杂的、基于蛋白组学的新方法为酵母核孔复合物的结
构提供了一个详细的视图。该复合物的一半是由一个核心脚手架组成的,它形成
一个覆盖在核包裹膜表面上的网络,该复合物就潜入在这层膜之内。这一具有选
择性的输送障碍机构由大量贴在该脚手架内面的蛋白组成。尽管这种复合物很
大,但其中却只有少数几个结构模块。这种结构上的简单性为了解其演化起源提
供了可能的线索:它可能起源于一种“原始的”核孔复合物。
(Articles pp. 683, 695; News & Views; www.nature.com/podcast


“金星特快”探测器最新观测结果(EXPRESS DELIVERY)
Venus as a more Earth-like planet
欧洲航天局的“金星特快”探测器自2006年4月以来一直绕金星运行。本期
Nature上8篇论文介绍了这次任务获得的新结果,它们分别涉及金星大气、极地
特征、与太阳风的互动、以及有争议的金星闪电问题等。H?kan Svedham等人通
过分析金星与其所谓的孪生兄弟地球之间的相似之处和(主要是)差别之处开启
了这一关于金星的专题。在News & Views文章中,Andrew Ingersoll分析了最近
的这一批结果,并对“金星特快”研究团队是怎样计划充分利用该探测器剩余六
年寿命的做了介绍。
(Manuscripts pp. 629-662)
(News & Views p. 617)


细菌毒素进入细胞内的过程的成像研究(Quick on the uptake)
Shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into
cells
对细菌毒素吸收进细胞中的一个早期阶段(膜内折的形成)所进行的一项成像研
究,显示了一个由货物诱导的机制,该机制也许还适用于其他病原体,如病毒
等,并且更普遍地适用于其他细胞内吞事件。研究人员观测到,志贺氏毒素(由
痢疾志贺氏菌产生)的B-亚单元通过狭窄的管状膜内折进入细胞。该毒素在管状
内折形成之前诱导膜重组。在细胞上,内折独立于被认为与膜变形能力有关的蛋
白复合物(如clathrin 和caveolin)而形成,并且还是在细胞能量耗尽时形成
的。所以,膜内折依赖于物理原理,能够自然地出现,而不需要复杂的细胞机
器,但随后的分离需要细胞因素的参与。
(Article p. 670)


神经传输物质的释放(A piece of the action)
A dual-Ca2+-sensor model for neurotransmitter release in a central
synapse
神经传输物质在神经末梢的释放是由钙离子的流入触发的,其流入是响应于神经
脉冲进行的——可以是自然进行的, 也可以是作为动作电位进行的。在后一种
情况下,释放是快速的(和同步的)或延迟的(非同步的)。Jianyuan Sun等人
利用遗传学和电生理学工具,将同步和非同步释放区分了开来,并且提出二者存
在独立的钙传感器。他们还建立了一个定量模型,来解释突触传输的钙依赖性的
所有情况。
(Article p. 676; News & Views)


用STEM/EELS方法对原子进行二维观测(Atom-level microscopy)
Element-selective imaging of atomic columns in a crystal using STEM
and EELS
微结构定性对于复合物材料的研究很重要。例如,半导体装置由纳米尺度的部件
组成,它们的性能表现取决于原子尺度的微结构。虽然电子显微镜能够分辨单个
原子,但它不能区分它们的化学类型。将扫描透射电子显微镜(STEM)与电子能
量损失光谱(EELS)结合起来,应能分析各列原子的化学组成,但实际存在的困
难意味着完全的二维分析一直不可能进行。现在,这些问题中的其中一些已经被
克服,STEM/EELS成像已被用来对层状水锰矿La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7中的镧、锰和氧以
二维图像方式进行观测。
(Letter p. 702; News & Views)


中孔材料中分子扩散运动的观测(Pore relations with guests)
Visualizing single-molecule diffusion in mesoporous materials
具有中等孔(即直径在几百纳米的孔)的材料有很多潜在应用,包括存储、分离
和催化转换等,其中大多数应用都依赖于外来分子通过这些孔所进行的扩散。然
而,尚没有方法将外来分子的运动与材料的结构关联起来。随着一种将电子显微
镜与光学单分子跟踪结合起来在一种中孔材料中对分子扩散进行观测的方法的开
发成功,这种情况将会改变。研究人员首次能够“看到”外来分子(在本研究中
进行了染色)响应于主体的结构特征而在纳米尺度上改变运动速度或方向。这一
结果为更深地了解中孔固体的性质创造了条件。
(Letter p. 705)


地核-地幔之间物质混合的机制(Earth, the remix)
A diffusion mechanism for core–mantle interaction
曾经有人提出,地球的地核外层材料在地核形成之后回到地幔中去的过程,可能
要对上层地幔岩石中所观测到的元素比例负责,但这种情况发生的可能机制仍不
清楚。Leslie Hayden 和 Bruce Watson报告了对喜铁元素通过多晶MgO在颗粒边
界层的扩散所进行的一项研究工作的实验结果。喜铁元素由于在地核中极为丰
富,因而是地核对地幔中这些元素所做贡献的很好指示器。他们发现,这些元素
的扩散率非常高,按照地球的年龄来说,在具有地质意义的距离之上(如几十公
里),这种扩散率高到足以说明颗粒边界层扩散是喜铁元素沿地核-地幔边界输
送中的一个潜在的重要机制。
(Letter p. 709)


一系列小分子SIRT1激发因子被发现(SIRT1 activators in diabetes)
Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment
of type 2 diabetes
SIRT1是一种依赖于NAD+的去乙酰酶,作用于参与细胞调控的蛋白之上,被发现
与寿命有关,并且是限制热量所产生的有益效应的一种调节因子。一项新的筛选
工作识别出了一系列小分子SIRT1激发因子,它们在结构上与白藜芦醇(在红酒
中发现的众所周知的SIRT1激发因子)没有关系,但效能却是白藜芦醇的1000
倍。这些新合成的化合物能在糖尿病和肥胖症的动物模型中改善代谢功能,说明
它们也许在二型糖尿病和胰岛素抗性疾病中有潜在疗效。
(Letter p. 712)


p53的正常功能(In search of p53’s other roles)
p53 regulates maternal reproduction through LIF
转录因子p53作为一种肿瘤抑制因子已经受到广泛研究,但人们对其正常生理作
用却知之甚少。现在,用小鼠所做的一项研究将p53的正常功能与繁殖和生育联
系了起来。p53缺乏导致雌性小鼠胚胎着床较差、受孕率较低和后代身材较小。
p53是通过调控LIF来发挥这一功能的。 LIF是一种细胞因子,参与囊胚的着床。
这项工作让我们看到这样一个可能性:p53的正常功能对于着床的成功很重要,
尤其是对经历体外授精或胚胎转移的妇女来说;同时这一结果也让我们看到了提
高习惯性着床失败妇女的着床效率的一个潜在策略。
(Letter p. 721; News & Views)


抗生素的一个新的作用目标(An alternative to antibiotics)
Intracellular bacterial growth is controlled by a kinase network
around PKB/AKT1
传统抗生素通过抑制重要病原体功能来发挥作用,它们因此也容易受病原体所形
成的对抗生素的抵抗力的影响。一种替代的办法是以支持病原体生长的宿主因子
为作用目标。现在,研究人员通过对能够抑制鼠伤寒沙门氏菌和结核分枝杆菌细
胞内生长的激酶所进行的一项新颖的RNA干涉筛选,识别出这种方法的一个可能
的作用目标。这种关键分子是Akt1,它是一种激酶,以前被称为PKB,因其所具
有的抗细胞程序死亡活性和在失控癌症中所起作用而受到了广泛研究。
(Letter p. 725)


mTOR与细胞能量的关系得到证明(Mitochondrial sensor)
mTOR controls mitochondrial oxidative function through a YY1–PGC-1
transcriptional complex
营养物传感分子mTOR(雷帕霉素的哺乳动物目标)是参与调控细胞生长和增殖的
一种激酶。它与细胞能量的密切联系表明,它也许能够与线粒体发生相互作用。
现在一项计算遗传学研究证实了这一点。mTOR通过对线粒体基因表达的转录控制
及氧化功能来平衡能量代谢,以转录调控物质PGC-1alpha 和YY1为调控因子。这
一通道为线粒体活性受损的代谢疾病的治疗干预提供了新的可能性。
(Letter p. 736)


运动蛋白kinesin与微管的结合状态(Double header)
How kinesin waits between steps
研究人员对普遍存在的运动蛋白kinesin已经进行了广泛研究,但一个基本的机
制问题仍然没有得到回答:当kinesin在每8纳米的步长之间等待时它是两头都与
微管结合在一起的还是只有一头与微管结合?现在,Mori等人研制出单分子荧光
共振能量转移传感器(smFRET),用来在该运动蛋白沿微管运动时对其进行跟
踪。他们发现,在生理浓度的ATP中,kinesin是以一种双头结合状态在两个步长
之间等待的,而在低浓度的ATP中,它主要以单头结合状态出现。
(Letter p. 750; News & Views)


----------------------
NEWS AND VIEWS
----------------------
Venus: Express dispatches pp617 - 618
The Venus Express mission has returned its first findings on the harsh
atmosphere of our sister planet. It's another step towards explaining
how Venus turned out so differently from our balmy home.
Andrew P. Ingersoll
doi:10.1038/450617a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450617a.html

Reproduction: The unusual suspect p619
The p53 protein is widely studied for its function as a tumour
suppressor, preventing cancer. It emerges that this protein also has
an essential physiological role in regulating embryo implantation in
mice.
Colin L. Stewart
doi:10.1038/450619a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450619a.html

Cell biology: Pore puzzle pp621 - 622
Where would you start in trying to work out the structure of a
macromolecular machine consisting of 456 proteins? Taking a combined
experimental and computational approach is one answer.
John D. Aitchison and Richard W. Wozniak
doi:10.1038/450621a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450621a.html

50 & 100 Years Ago p621
doi:10.1038/450621b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450621b.html

Microscopy: Elementary resolution pp622 - 623
The atoms and bonds that make up complex solids can be identified
chemically ― a feat made possible by cleverly combining spectroscopic
and structural information conveyed by electrons scattered through a
thin sample.
Christian Colliex
doi:10.1038/450622a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450622a.html

Neuroscience: Sensors and synchronicity pp623 - 625
Synaptic communication is triggered by action potentials, but neurons
also talk to each other in between action potentials. Specific
intracellular-calcium sensors regulate these conversations.
Ruth Heidelberger
doi:10.1038/450623a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450623a.html

Molecular motors: A step dissected pp625 - 626
The motor protein kinesin 'walks' by alternately advancing its two
motor structural domains. A cutting-edge, single-molecule fluorescence
technique reveals further details of this stepping mechanism.
Zeynep A?kten and Manfred Schliwa
doi:10.1038/450625a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450625a.html

Obituary: Leslie Orgel (1927―2007) p627
Chemist, molecular biologist and pioneer in the study of the origins
of life.
Gerald F. Joyce
doi:10.1038/450627a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/450627a.html

----------------------
FOCUS
----------------------
PROGRESS
Venus as a more Earth-like planet pp629 - 632
Venus is Earth's near twin in mass and radius, yet its atmosphere,
mostly composed of carbon dioxide, has a surface temperature and
pressure far higher than those of the Earth. This paper discusses the
first year of observations by Venus Express, which bring into focus
the evolutionary paths by which the climates of two similar planets
diverged from common beginnings to such extremes.
Hakan Svedhem, Dmitry V. Titov, Fredric W. Taylor and Olivier Witasse
doi:10.1038/nature06432
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06432.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06432.html

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
Morphology and dynamics of the upper cloud layer of Venus pp633
- 636
Venus is completely covered by a thick cloud layer, with the cloud
tops in fast retrograde rotation. Global and small scale properties of
these clouds and their temporal and latitudinal variations are
investigated, and the wind velocities are derived. The southern polar
region is highly variable and can change dramatically on time scales
as short as one day, perhaps arising from the injection of SO2 into
the mesosphere.
W. J. Markiewicz et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06320
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06320.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06320.html

South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north
pole pp637 - 640
Venus has a bright 'dipole' double-eye feature at the centre of a vast
vortex that rotates around the north pole, and is surrounded by a cold
'collar'. Observations of Venus' south polar region are reported,
where clouds with morphology much like those around the north pole are
seen, but rotating somewhat faster.
G. Piccioni et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06209
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06209.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06209.html

A dynamic upper atmosphere of Venus as revealed by VIRTIS on Venus
Express pp641 - 645
Observations of infrared emission from CO2, O2 and NO established that
photochemical and dynamic activity controls the structure of the upper
atmosphere of Venus, but were unable to identify the altitude of the
emission. But it is reported here that day-side CO2 emission extends
from 90-120 km altitude, with a peak at ~115 km. Night-side O2
emission peaks at 96 km and is visible over the range 95-100 km.
P. Drossart et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06140
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06140.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06140.html

A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of
HF, HCl, H2O and HDO pp646 - 649
Venus' mesosphere is a transition region between the retrograde super
rotation at the top of the thick clouds and the solar-antisolar
circulation in the thermosphere. The mesospheric distributions of HF,
HCl, H2O and HDO are reported, and an unexpected extensive layer of
warm air at altitudes 90-120 km on the nightside is found.
Jean-Loup Bertaux et al.
doi:10.1038/nature05974
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature05974.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature05974.html

The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake pp650 - 653
On Venus, the bulk of O and O2 are gravitationally bound, but heavy
ions have been observed to escape, though their composition could not
be determined. Venus Express measurements report that the dominant
escaping ions are O+, He+ and H+. The escape of H+ and O+, together
with the estimated neutral hydrogen and oxygen escape, currently takes
place near the stoichometric ratio corresponding to water.
S. Barabash et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06434
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06434.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06434.html

Little or no solar wind enters Venus' atmosphere at solar
minimum pp654 - 656
Magnetic field measurements from the Venus Express spacecraft show
that the bow shock seems to be in the position that would be expected
from a complete deflection by a magnetized ionosphere. Therefore
little solar wind enters the Venus ionosphere
T. L. Zhang et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06026
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06026.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06026.html

The structure of Venus' middle atmosphere and ionosphere pp657
- 660
Radio-sounding results from the first Venus Express Radio Science
(VeRa) occultation season are reported, which determine the fine
structure in temperatures at upper cloud-deck altitudes, detect a
distinct day-night temperature difference in the southern middle
atmosphere, and track day-to-day changes in Venus' ionosphere.
M. Patzold et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06239
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06239.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06239.html

Lightning on Venus inferred from whistler-mode waves in the
ionosphere pp661 - 662
Observations of Venus' ionosphere reveal strong, circularly-polarized,
electromagnetic waves with frequencies near 100 Hz. The waves appear
as bursts of radiation lasting 0.25 to 0.5 s and have the expected
properties of whistler-mode signals generated by lightning discharges
in Venus' clouds.
C. T. Russell et al.
doi:10.1038/nature05930
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature05930.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature05930.html

----------------------
REVIEWS
----------------------
Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and
bacterial plasma membranes pp663 - 669
Tom A. Rapoport
doi:10.1038/nature06384
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06384.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06384.html

----------------------
ARTICLES
----------------------
Shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into
cells pp670 - 675
A study of endocytosis of Shigella toxin shows that it enters cells
via narrow tubular membrane invaginations, with similar properties on
cell and model membranes. The toxin induces membrane reorganisation
before the formation of tubular invaginations.
Winfried Romer et al.
doi:10.1038/nature05996
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature05996.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature05996.html

A dual-Ca2+-sensor model for neurotransmitter release in a central
synapse pp676 - 682
A combination of genetics and electrophysiology is used to tease apart
synchronous and asynchronous releases of neurotransmitter at nerve
terminals, and the existence of independent calcium sensors is
proposed. The first quantitative model to account for the full range
of calcium-dependence of synaptic transmission is also provided.
Jianyuan Sun et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06308
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06308.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06308.html

Determining the architectures of macromolecular assemblies pp683
- 694
Frank Alber et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06404
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06404.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06404.html

The molecular architecture of the nuclear pore complex pp695 - 701
Frank Alber et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06405
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06405.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06405.html

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
Visualizing single-molecule diffusion in mesoporous materials pp705
- 708
Electron microscopy is combined with optical single-molecule tracking
to visualize molecular diffusion in a nanoporous material. For the
first time, guest molecules can be 'seen' changing speed or direction
in response to structural features of the host.
Andreas Zurner et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06398
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06398.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06398.html

A diffusion mechanism for core-mantle interaction pp709 - 711
Experimental results from a study of grain-boundary diffusion of
siderophile ('iron-loving') elements through polycrystalline MgO are
reported. The diffusivities computed are high enough to allow
transport of a number of siderophile elements over geologically
significant length scales (tens of kilometres) over the age of the
Earth.
Leslie A. Hayden and E. Bruce Watson
doi:10.1038/nature06380
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06380.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06380.html

Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment
of type 2 diabetes pp712 - 716
This work describes the identification and characterization of novel
small molecule activators of SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that
mediates the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. These small
molecules are structurally unrelated to, and much more potent than,
resveratrol, and improve metabolic function in animal models of
diabetes and obesity.
Jill C. Milne et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06261
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06261.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06261.html

Interpretation of the sonic hedgehog morphogen gradient by a temporal
adaptation mechanism pp717 - 720
Understanding morphogen activity is one of the longest standing
problems in developmental biology. Both the duration of exposure to
the secreted morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the concentration of
Shh are important in determining the fate of cells in the neural tube
and in the limb bud. This paper clarifies the relationship between
time and concentration in Shh signalling during patterning of the
neural tube.
Eric Dessaud et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06347
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06347.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06347.html

p53 regulates maternal reproduction through LIF pp721 - 724
The p53 gene has been extensively studied for its role in tumour
prevention but little is known about its normal physiological
function. A crucial role of this factor in fecundity and reproduction
is now reported.
Wenwei Hu, Zhaohui Feng, Angelika K. Teresky and Arnold J. Levine
doi:10.1038/nature05993
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature05993.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature05993.html

Intracellular bacterial growth is controlled by a kinase network
around PKB/AKT1 pp725 - 730
Conventional antibiotics, which target the infectious agent, are
subject to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative
approach is to focus on host factors that support pathogen growth. A
kinase inhibitor screen identified AKT1 as a central molecule
essential for intracellular survival of Salmonella typhimurium and
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and thus presenting a putative drug target.
Coenraad Kuijl et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06345
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06345.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06345.html

Calcineurin sets the bandwidth for discrimination of signals during
thymocyte development pp731 - 735
Immature thymic T cells receive signals through the T cell receptor
which determine whether they undergo positive or negative selection.
Calcineurin/NFAT signalling in preselection thymocytes produces a
temporal window with enhanced signalling sensitivity paving the way
for positive selection.
Elena M. Gallo et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06305
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06305.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06305.html

mTOR controls mitochondrial oxidative function through a YY1-PGC-1α
transcriptional complex pp736 - 740
The nutrient sensor mTOR controls mitochondrial gene expression and
oxidative function via an interaction between the transcriptional
regulators PGC-1α and YY1.
John T. Cunningham et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06322
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06322.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06322.html

Inhibition of the EGF receptor by binding of MIG6 to an activating
kinase domain interface pp741 - 744
Crystal structures of complexes between the epidermal growth factor
receptor (EGFR) kinase domain and a fragment of its feedback inhibitor
MIG6 reveal an allosteric inhibition mechanism. MIG6 binds the
cyclin/CDK-like asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR and blocks
formation of the activating dimer.
Xuewu Zhang et al.
doi:10.1038/nature05998
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature05998.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature05998.html

The centromere geometry essential for keeping mitosis error free is
controlled by spindle forces pp745 - 749
This paper addresses the question of how centromere architecture
affects spindle formation, and presents evidence supporting the claim
that centromeres are malleable with respect to tangential forces. Once
deformed, they remain in this position until they are straightened by
external forces applied along microtubules.
Jadranka Loncarek et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06344
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/abs/nature06344.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7170/full/nature06344.html
 
    
 


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