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2007年12月20日Nature中文摘要
封面故事: Nature首次颁发“年度新闻人物”奖
Nature杂志首次“年度新闻人物”(Newsmaker of the Year)奖颁发给2002年
以来一直担任“政府间气候变化专门委员会”(IPCC)主任的Rajendra Kumar
Pachauri以及IPCC其他人士和2007年诺贝尔和平奖获得者、美国前副总统阿尔*
戈尔。本期Nature从1150页开始的“新闻特写”文章介绍了他的成就。

超导的产生并非必需有声子(Who needs phonons? )
Superconductivity without phonons
超导的经典形式最终由在上个世纪50年代获得诺贝尔奖的BCS(Bardeen,
Cooper, Schrieffer)理论解释为通过声子的交换发生相互作用的电子对所构成
的一种超级流体。既然如此,那么理论工作者便问,由声子所提供的变形的晶格
是否是产生超导性所必需的? 实际上不是这样的,一系列“非传统 ”超导体随
后的发现证明了这一点。在一篇Review Article中,Phillipe Monthoux, David
Pines 和Gilbert Lonzarich介绍了对磁相互作用模型的一个重新表述,该模型
正在成为不依靠声子来解释超导的一个强大的理论框架。(Review Article p.
1177)

被子植物的起源仍很神秘(Floral haul)
After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a
great mystery
达尔文将显花植物(被子植物)的起源称之为一种“可怕的秘密”。最近的化石
发现以及来自分子遗传学的线索正在帮助人们更清楚地认识被子植物和其他植物
之间的进化关系。但是,正如Michael Frohlich 和Mark Chase在他们的Review
Article中所解释的那样,这个问题的某些方面似乎同它们在达尔文时代一样神
秘。(Review Article p. 1184)

鲸类的陆地祖先已经找到(The whales’ tale)
Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of
India
鲸演化的前1000万年在化石中留下了很好的记录,但它们是怎样从其陆生祖先演
化来的却仍不清楚。一项新的研究表明,来自印度的一种名叫“raoellid”的原
始偶蹄动物是与早期鲸类已知关系最近的动物。这种动物与鲸类相似之处在于其
耳朵和前臼齿的结构、其骨头的厚度以及其牙齿的同位素组成,这些方面与其他
偶蹄类都是不同的。这些特征表明,这种与浣熊大小差不多的动物很多时间是生
活在水里的。不过,典型的这种动物所吃的东西与鲸很不相同,说明促使它们到
水里去生活的因素可能是饮食的变化,而不是水生环境本身的吸引力。
(Article p. 1190; News & Views)

月球形成时间被改写(Full Moon)
Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from
W isotopes in lunar metals
一项新的钨同位素研究改写了月球形成的时间。月球被认为是由与早期地球发生
的一次巨大碰撞所喷射出的碎片形成的。这个过程中所涉及的高能量会引起熔
融,形成一个由月球岩浆构成的海洋。以前关于钨同位素的研究工作表明,月球
是在太阳系的前6000万年内固化的。来自基于铪/钨时钟的关于月球金属的新数
据与釤/钕时间测量结果是一致的,说明月球固化的时间要晚一些,即是在太阳
系的年龄在5000万年和1.50亿年之间时固化的。(Letter p. 1206; News &
Views)


产生光频梳的新方法(A fine-tooth comb)
Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator
光频“梳”是能够发射离散的、等间距频率光的光源,所以其光谱有一个典型
的、梳子一样的形状。频率梳正在使光谱和计量领域发生革命性变化:现在利用
该技术的时钟在准确性上能够超过原子钟,如目前用作时间标准的铯时钟。但生
成一个频率梳所需的仪器化过程却很繁复,通常需要对一个庞大的飞秒激光源进
行细致的稳定。现在,Del’Haye等人研究出一种与频率梳的生成有根本性不同
的方法:仅仅用一个传统的激光二极管对置于一个硅芯片上的小小的碟状谐振器
进行照射就可以了。激光与谐振器之间所发生的相互作用会导致在红外波段发射
一个光频梳。该方案非常简单,另外系统的尺寸、成本和能耗都有可能降低,所
以它将能够增强光频梳在很多领域的实用性。(Letter p. 1214; News &
Views)

古新世/始新世全球变暖并非由温室气体引起(Early warming signs)
Environmental precursors to rapid light carbon injection at the
Palaeocene/Eocene boundary
“古新世/始新世极热时期”是发生在距今大约5500万年前的一个全球气候强烈
变暖的时期,它与在同位素组成上明显不同的温室气体向海洋-大气系统的大量
释放有关。然而,是这一因素引起了该事件特有的全球变暖和环境变化、还是后
者导致了前者?这个问题仍不清楚。Sluijs等人利用来自新泽西两个沉积层的、
关于跨越古新世/始新世边界层的环境变化的高分辨率记录,为弄清这个问题提
供了线索。他们发现,在这一地点,环境变化和海洋表面变暖的开始时间比温室
气体的输入时间早几千年。相关事件的这一时间序列与认为海洋深层变暖引起海
底气体水合物分解、将大量温室气体甲烷释放出来的观点是一致的。但早期变暖
的原因仍然不确定。(Letter p. 1218)

决定食物链稳定性的因素(Body size and diversity)
Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability
全球生物多样性的维持,取决于对哪些参数影响食物链稳定性及物种群落怎样对
它们的变化做出响应的认识。对来自涉及生活在五个不同自然食物网(一个是溪
流、一个是池塘、一个是湖泊、一个是陆地、一个是海洋)中的三种无脊椎动物
的食物链的数据所做的分析,显示了消费者物种和它们的资源之间的体重比何以
能够允许物种共存。根据经验获得的这些自然网络中的物种的体重比,与用一个
生物能消费者-资源模型所预测的结果是一致的。所以,身体大小与食物链结构
之间的简单关系可能决定着食物链的稳定性。(Letter p. 1226)

转录因子Nanog与胚胎干细胞多能性的关系(Nanog changes tack)
Nanog safeguards pluripotency and mediates germline development
2003年,转录因子Nanog被发现是使胚胎干细胞具有独特性质——多能性的一个
关键贡献因素。Nanog这个名称来自“Tir nan Og”,在凯尔特神话中意思是
“永远年轻的土地”。 过去,它被认为是干细胞增殖、同时保持其分化潜力所
必需的。用小鼠胚胎干细胞所做新的研究表明,事实完全不是这样。实际上,
Nanog并不是维持多能性所必需的,其水平是波动的,但Nanog似乎能够通过抵抗
或逆转基因表达的不同状态来稳定多能性状态。(Letter p. 1230)

一种分离CTC细胞的新工具(Out of circulation)
Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by
microchip technology
能存活的来自肿瘤的上皮细胞(或称为循环肿瘤细胞,CTC)见于癌症患者的外
周血液里,而且它们可能是难治愈的转移性疾病的根源。实践证明,要从癌症患
者身上分离这种细胞非常困难,主要是因为它们在外周血液中数量极少。现在,
研究人员开发出一种微流平台“CTC-芯片”,它能够从癌症患者血液中选择性
地、高效地分离CTC。这种新工具有可能用于癌症的检测和诊断,以及用来监测
某一患者对治疗的反应。(Article p. 1235; News & Views)

为了更完美的表现(The wrong stuff)
Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of 'crystallized'
adult birdsong
为什么即便是训练最好的运动员和音乐家也不能有完美表现?一种观点是,人们
表现上的这种残留的变化是一种“噪音”,它反映了我们控制自己运动的能力上
所存在的根本性的局限性。而用成年鸣鸟彩排极好的歌声为模型所做的实验则做
出另一种解释。对成年“十姐妹”(一种鸣鸟)明显程式化的歌声用电脑所做监
测发现,它们的表现也有微小差别。每当歌声变化超过一定极限就给唱歌的鸟给
予纠正时,它们会迅速学习对自己的发声进行适应性改变。这一发现的意义在
于,歌声一旦被学会,就能被保持下去,尽管因年龄增长等因素而使声带系统发
生微妙变化。所以行为“噪音”并不简单是一种令人讨厌的东西,而是可能反映
了神经系统为使表现更完美所做的实验。(Letter p. 1240)

完好大脑中突触前结电活动的测量(Sensitive synapses)
High-fidelity transmission of sensory information by single cerebellar
mossy fibre boutons
突触结(神经细胞之间进行通信的点)非常小,因此如果不对大脑进行切片,就
不可能对它们的电活动进行记录。在一项非凡的实验中,Rancz等人首次对来自
完好哺乳动物大脑中突触前结的电活动进行了记录。他们获得的结果与关于小脑
怎样对传感信息进行集成以控制运动的流行观点(来自试管实验)是矛盾的,因
为其结果显示,单一脑连接对于来自环境的刺激具有出乎意料的敏感性。
(Letter p. 1245)

----------------------
NEWS AND VIEWS
----------------------
Physics: A quantum less quirky pp1167 - 1168
What physicists want for Christmas is a solution to the philosophical
conundrums of quantum mechanics. They will be disappointed, but work
that dissolves one aspect of quantum weirdness is some consolation.
Seth Lloyd
doi:10.1038/4501167a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501167a.html

Cancer diagnostics: One-stop shop pp1168 - 1169
Detecting cancer early and monitoring its progress non-invasively are
high on oncologists' agenda. So the design of a neat device that
detects and counts cancer cells shed into the blood by tumours is a
welcome advance.
Jonathan W. Uhr
doi:10.1038/4501168a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501168a.html

Planetary science: A younger Moon pp1169 - 1170
The most recent study of lunar rocks indicates that the Moon formed
later than previously thought ― a conclusion that requires our view
of the early history of the inner Solar System to be revised.
Alan Brandon
doi:10.1038/4501169a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501169a.html

50 & 100 Years Ago p1170
doi:10.1038/4501170a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501170a.html

Structural biology: The dance of domains pp1171 - 1172
Static crystal structures provide only clues about the way large
biological molecules work. A recently developed spectroscopic
technique also reveals details of their molecular motion, as shown for
an RNA molecule from HIV.
Joseph D. Puglisi
doi:10.1038/4501171a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501171a.html

Photonics: Charge of the light brigade pp1172 - 1173
The latest study of fluorescence in nanowires shows that it can be
controlled by electric fields. This finding suggests the presence of
mobile charge carriers, which could be useful for designing
nanoelectronic devices.
David J. Nesbitt
doi:10.1038/4501172a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501172a.html

Neuroscience: Neighbourly synapses pp1173 - 1175
Experiences shape our behaviour, memories and perception.
Mechanistically, they also influence the brain's circuitry, and
cooperativity between neuronal contacts during learning may contribute
to this process.
Bernardo L. Sabatini
doi:10.1038/4501173a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501173a.html

Technology: The art of illumination p1175
Liesbeth Venema
doi:10.1038/4501175a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501175a.html

Metrology: New generation of combs pp1175 - 1176
To measure an optical frequency, you are best off using an optical
frequency comb. A radical approach shakes up how these combs are
produced, and will permit their closer integration into optical-fibre
technology.
Steven T. Cundiff
doi:10.1038/4501175b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501175b.html

Correction p1176
doi:10.1038/4501176a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/4501176a.html

----------------------
REVIEWS
----------------------
Superconductivity without phonons pp1177 - 1183
P. Monthoux, D. Pines and G. G. Lonzarich
doi:10.1038/nature06480
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06480.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06480.html

After a dozen years of progress the origin of angiosperms is still a
great mystery pp1184 - 1189
Michael W. Frohlich and Mark W. Chase
doi:10.1038/nature06393
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06393.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06393.html

----------------------
ARTICLES
----------------------
Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of
India pp1190 - 1194
J. G. M. Thewissen et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06343
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06343.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06343.html

Locally dynamic synaptic learning rules in pyramidal neuron
dendrites pp1195 - 1200
Christopher D. Harvey and Karel Svoboda
doi:10.1038/nature06416
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06416.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06416.html

Structural basis for gate-DNA recognition and bending by type IIA
topoisomerases pp1201 - 1205
Ken C. Dong and James M. Berger
doi:10.1038/nature06396
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06396.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06396.html

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
Late formation and prolonged differentiation of the Moon inferred from
W isotopes in lunar metals pp1206 - 1209
M. Touboul et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06428
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06428.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06428.html

Internal motions of a quasiparticle governing its ultrafast nonlinear
response pp1210 - 1213
P. Gaal et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06399
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06399.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06399.html

Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic
microresonator pp1214 - 1217
P. Del/'Haye et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06401
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06401.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06401.html

Environmental precursors to rapid light carbon injection at the
Palaeocene/Eocene boundary pp1218 - 1221
Appy Sluijs et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06400
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06400.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06400.html

Trench-parallel flow and seismic anisotropy in the Mariana and Andean
subduction systems pp1222 - 1225
Erik A. Kneller and Peter E. van Keken
doi:10.1038/nature06429
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06429.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06429.html

Allometric degree distributions facilitate food-web stability pp1226
- 1229
Sonja B. Otto, Bjorn C. Rall and Ulrich Brose
doi:10.1038/nature06359
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06359.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06359.html

Nanog safeguards pluripotency and mediates germline development pp1230
- 1234
Ian Chambers et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06403
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06403.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06403.html

Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by
microchip technology pp1235 - 1239
Sunitha Nagrath et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06385
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06385.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06385.html

Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of
/`crystallized/' adult birdsong pp1240 - 1244
Evren C. Tumer and Michael S. Brainard
doi:10.1038/nature06390
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06390.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06390.html

High-fidelity transmission of sensory information by single cerebellar
mossy fibre boutons pp1245 - 1248
Ede A. Rancz et al.
doi:10.1038/nature05995
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature05995.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature05995.html

Stochastic gene expression out-of-steady-state in the cyanobacterial
circadian clock pp1249 - 1252
Jeffrey R. Chabot, Juan M. Pedraza, Prashant Luitel and Alexander van
Oudenaarden
doi:10.1038/nature06395
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06395.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06395.html

Toll-like receptor signalling in macrophages links the autophagy
pathway to phagocytosis pp1253 - 1257
Miguel A. Sanjuan et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06421
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06421.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06421.html

Cdc48/p97 promotes reformation of the nucleus by extracting the kinase
Aurora B from chromatin pp1258 - 1262
Kristijan Ramadan et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06388
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06388.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06388.html

Visualizing spatially correlated dynamics that directs RNA
conformational transitions pp1263 - 1267
Qi Zhang, Andrew C. Stelzer, Charles K. Fisher and Hashim M.
Al-Hashimi
doi:10.1038/nature06389
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06389.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06389.html

Segrosome structure revealed by a complex of ParR with centromere
DNA pp1268 - 1271
Maria A. Schumacher et al.
doi:10.1038/nature06392
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/abs/nature06392.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v450/n7173/full/nature06392.html
 
    
 


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