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2008年11月13日Nature中文摘要
封面故事: 光照能影响表达不同神经传输物质的神经元数量
Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating
behaviour
表达各种不同神经传输物质的神经元之间的平衡,被认为是在脑发育过程中由基因控制
确定的。这是一个关键的步骤,它使得各组神经元之间能够传递信号。现在,由Davide
Dulcis 和 Nicholas Spitzer完成的一项新的研究表明,生理刺激也能调控一组神经元
中所表达的神经传输物质类别。他们发现,暴露于自然光的蝌蚪会增加表达多巴胺的中
枢神经元的数量,而这反过来又会影响皮肤颜色变化及它们的伪装潜力。本期封面所示
为在自然环境中适应了黑暗的一只蝌蚪和适应了光照的一只蝌蚪,其中一只比另一只伪
装更好。这一发现也许还有更广泛的意义,并且还可能与由生源胺调控的认知状态的变
化有关。有趣的是,人们用亮光疗法治疗季节性情感障碍患者已有20多年了。季节性情
感障碍是一种抑郁症,被发现与多巴胺信号作用障碍有关。(Letter p. 195)(封面
照片:Norma Velazquez Ulloa、Armando de la Torre 和Krista Todd)


决定鸟鸣时程的大脑机制(Going for a song)
Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird motor pathway
人说话和鸟唱歌等复杂行为要求在多种时间尺度上、在正确的时刻完成一组有序的运
动。控制这种类型行为的“时钟”的性质仍然不是很清楚。现在,一项具有广泛用途的
方法被用来确定决定鸟鸣时程的时钟回路。该方法所利用的是脑过程的速度强烈依赖于
温度这样一个事实。当斑胸草雀运动前区高级发声中枢(HVC)的活动因温度降低而减
慢时,其叫声的总体速度也降低,但叫声内的声学元素结构保持不变。这说明HVC是脑
中控制决定鸟鸣时程的复杂行为序列的区域。(Article p. 189; News & Views)


钠离子通道电压传感器的性质(Sodium channels unmasked)
Deconstructing voltage sensor function and pharmacology in sodium channels
神经和肌肉细胞中的钠离子通道随跨膜电压的变化而开关。它们是产生神经脉冲的关
键,是很多毒素和药物的作用目标。与由电压门控的钾离子通道(由四个含有相同电压
传感区域的亚单元组成)不同的是,钠离子通道来自一个基因,含有四个不相同的电压
传感区域。Bosmans等人利用对称钾离子通道作为“记者”,来揭示移植进一个钾离子
通道核中的各种不同钠离子通道电压传感器的性质。他们发现,“桨状”区域对钠离子
通道的功能很重要,毒素-“桨状”区域互动具有高度特异性。(Article p. 202;
News & Views)


夜晚看到的土星极光(Saturn’s aurora by night)
Complex structure within Saturn's infrared aurora
行星极光一般是由在一个行星的电离层和磁层之间流动的电流产生的,这种电流将带电
高能粒子加速,后者随后撞击上层大气(而发光)。最近关于土星极光的模型预测,土
星的极光主椭圆区只有微弱的辐射。现在,Stallard等人介绍了“卡西尼”探测器从一
个新角度拍摄的图片,它们首次让我们从土星上夜晚的一边看到了极光。这些图片显
示,主椭圆区的辐射既有朝两极方向的,也有朝赤道方向的。极向辐射随时间发生变
化,似乎与强磁层压缩无关。该极光对土星来说似乎是独特的,无法用关于土星磁层的
当前模型来解释。(Letter p. 214)


单一电子自旋的超快光控(Single spin caught in the light)
Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast
optical pulses
被束缚在一个半导体纳米结构中的单一电子自旋,是量子计算的一个理想量子位,因为
它在脱散作用影响下相对来说比较稳定,并且容易用电或光来操纵。以前,研究人员曾
用电控射频脉冲演示过涉及初始化、自旋转动和检测的完全量子控制,但这种方法对于
构建以有用的时钟速度运行的量子计算电路来说太慢。电子自旋的光操纵所允许的运行
速度要快得多,并且还有一个附加优势:允许使用光接口。现在,Press等人实现了对
处在一个量子点中的电子自旋的超快光控,而且,结合光初始化及检测,演示了一个单
一量子位逻辑门操作,它涉及由两个光脉冲构成的一个序列。可以设想,这种高速运行
有可能导致以千兆赫时钟速度运行的量子计算设备的问世。(Letter p. 218; News &
Views)


关于冰川期-间冰期交替的新观点(The shape of things to come)
Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability
过去300万年是一个气候剧变的时期,地球上的状况在寒冷的冰川期和温暖的间冰期两
个极端之间交替。这些变化通常被解释为气候系统对地球轨道的微妙周期性变化或地球
上二氧化碳背景水平的逐渐降低所做出的非线性反应。Thomas Crowley 和 William
Hyde提出了另一种观点。他们认为,这些越来越显著的波动虽然是由轨道变化推动的,
但却是正在逼近某一分叉点的一个系统的瞬间行为的反映。所谓分叉点,是指在这个点
上,该系统将经历一个转变,变为一个新的稳定气候状态,其特征是中纬度北半球有永
久冰川。模拟结果表明,这样一个转变用地质学上的时间概念来说有可能发生在近期
(10,000–100,000年),但只能发生在一个不大可能的情况下,即大气背景二氧化碳
浓度降到低于过去10,000年间的任何一个数值。(Letter p. 226)


捕食与竞争怎样影响生物多样性(Species in it together)
The interaction between predation and competition
了解物种之间的互动怎样帮助维护物种多样性,是生态学中的一个基础性问题。Peter
Chesson 和 Jessica Kuang提出的新的理论结果,突出显示了捕食与竞争在决定共存中
所扮演的相互独立的角色。他们发现,每个机制都能通过与特定物种的多样关系来促进
多样性,或通过让某种物种彼此之间进行竞争的狭隘关系来限制多样性。每个机制也都
能减小另一个机制的影响,或与另一个机制协同作用来促进多样性,由具体情况来决
定。(Letter p. 235)


三角褐指藻基因组完成测序(Diatoms’ chequered history)
The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes
硅藻是海洋与淡水中的一种微型藻类,在海洋中居支配地位,占地球上初级生产力的约
1/5。本期Nature发布了三角褐指藻(Phaeodactylum tricornutum)的完整基因组序
列,它是第二个被测序的硅藻。与第一个被测序的硅藻——假微型海链藻
(Thalassiosira pseudonana)所做的对比表明,通过硅藻与细菌之间的双向基因转
移,硅藻从细菌获得了数百个基因。基因转移在硅藻演化中似乎是普遍存在的,产生了
基因的非正规组合(其中包括一些来自植物和动物的基因),很可能在营养管理和环境
信号作用中起重要作用。(Letter p. 239; News & Views)


我们是怎样学会评价他人的?(Getting to know how)
Associative learning of social value
Behrens等人通过将计算与神经成像方法结合起来,对社会神经科学(social
neuroscience)中的一个关键问题进行了研究,这个问题是:我们是怎样学会把人分成
三六九等的?显然,与其他个体的互动在所有社会型动物中都能指导行为,但人们广泛
认为,社会学习就其机制和神经实现方式来说与其他形式的学习是完全不同的,社会学
习和评估机制在驱动行为方面与基于奖励的学习进行竞争。但新的研究工作(该研究对
人类志愿者在一项决策任务中的表现进行对比,这些志愿者有时能受益于从其伙伴那里
获得的建议,有时则会反受其害)表明,社会评价是通过与基于奖励的学习相同的机制
实现的,即是通过联想学习(associative learning)实现的。(Letter p. 245)


造成声音失真的关键(The key to sound distortion)
Stereocilin-deficient mice reveal the origin of cochlear waveform
distortions
哺乳动物的耳朵,或者说其听觉器官耳蜗,是非常灵敏、非常精细的声-电传导器。它
还能使声音显著失真,与我们直觉相反的是,正是这后一个特点才导致了能提高人耳语
音识别能力的掩蔽效应。此前,研究人员并不知道这些失真的起源。哺乳动物耳蜗有两
种类型的毛细胞——内毛细胞和外毛细胞。在用小鼠进行的实验中,Verpy等人发现,
造成失真的是外毛细胞;非线性出现在被称为“静纤毛”的外毛细胞之间的“顶端连接
器”(top connectors)中,更具体地说,出现在被称为“硬纤毛蛋白”的一种蛋白
中。(Letter p. 255)


与克罗恩病有关的又一个基因位点(Virgin/ Akira)
A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse and human
intestinal Paneth cells / Loss of the autophagy protein Atg16L1 enhances
endotoxin-induced IL-1  production
克罗恩病(肠道的一种慢性炎症)已被与超过30个基因位点联系起来。本期Nature上两
篇论文是关于最新发现的一个位点的,这个位点是ATG16L1 (Atg16-like 1)。Atg16蛋
白本身是首次在酵母中作为自噬过程的一个必要基因被发现的。自噬过程可将不想要的
细胞成分清除掉,细菌感染、神经退化和肿瘤生成等发病机理都涉及这一过程。
Cadwell等人报告了Atg16L1在Paneth细胞中的独特作用。Paneth细胞是一种上皮细胞,
向小肠中分泌含有抗菌肽的颗粒。Saiot发现,ATG16L1在分离的巨噬细胞和在小鼠的小
肠中所发生的炎症反应中都起一定作用,是自噬机制的一个必要组成成分。这项工作表
明,ATG16L1在炎症免疫反应的控制及小肠屏障的维护中发挥作用,这两个过程对于防
止肠道炎症的发生都很重要。(Letters pp. 259, 264)


----------------------
NEWS AND VIEWS
----------------------
Neuroscience: Light moulds plastic brains pp177-178
In tadpoles, the number of neurons expressing the neurotransmitter
dopamine increases on exposure to light. Such plasticity might allow
animals to match their brains' response to environmental stimuli.
Stefan Thor
doi:10.1038/456177a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456177a.html

Analytical chemistry: Home diagnostics to music pp178-179
Fed up with sitting in the doctor's surgery among all those sneezy
patients, waiting for the results of a health check? With the latest
technology, you could one day perform bioassays on your home compact-disc
player.
Jeffrey S. Erickson and Frances S. Ligler
doi:10.1038/456178a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456178a.html

Marine biology: Genes in the glass house pp179-181
Sequence data on a second species of diatom provide abundant
insights into the evolution and metabolic capabilities of this
group, as well as into mechanisms of gene acquisition and diversification.
Ronald P. Kiene
doi:10.1038/456179a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456179a.html

Quantum physics: Swift control of a single spin pp182-183
For now, quantum information processing systems remain a dream.
Step by step, however, progress towards that goal is being made,
with one promising route involving a novel means of manipulating electron
spin.
Keiichi Edamatsu
doi:10.1038/456182a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456182a.html

Ion channels: The voltage-sensor quartet pp183-185
Decoding the workings of voltage-gated sodium channels is crucial
because their mutation leads to severe disease and their activity
is modulated by toxins and drugs. An innovative approach now
allows such investigations.
J. R. Bankston and R. S. Kass
doi:10.1038/456183a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456183a.html

Microscopy: Watching catalysts at work pp185-186
Solid catalysts speed up many industrial chemical reactions and
steer them towards making desired products. A microscopy technique
could reveal the changes in composition that catalysts undergo as they
perform.
Alexis T. Bell
doi:10.1038/456185a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456185a.html

Biochemistry: Flexible peptide assembly pp186-187
A jack of all trades is a master of none, as the saying goes.
But a protein has been discovered that shuns specialism, and that
multitasks to give flexibility to its biosynthetic repertoire.
Jan C. M. van Hest
doi:10.1038/456186a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456186a.html

Neuroscience: Cool songs pp187-188
Cooling a specific cluster of neurons in songbirds' brains slows
song tempo without changing other acoustic features. This clever
technique could be used for understanding neural control of other
complex behaviours.
Chris M. Glaze and Todd Troyer
doi:10.1038/456187a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456187a.html

----------------------
CORRIGENDA
----------------------
The delayed rise of present-day mammals p274
Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07347
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07347.html

STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate
immune signalling p274
Hiroki Ishikawa and Glen N. Barber
doi:10.1038/nature07432
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07432.html

A role for clonal inactivation in T cell tolerance to Mls-1a p274
Marcia A. Blackman et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07514
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07514.html

Structural basis for specific cleavage of Lys[thinsp]63-linked
polyubiquitin chains p274
Yusuke Sato et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07515
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07515.html

----------------------
ADDENDUM
----------------------
Genes mirror geography within Europe p274
John Novembre et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07566
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07566.html

----------------------
FUTURES
----------------------
Quantum erat demonstrandum p280
Surfing the treacherous data wave.
C. N. Simms
doi:10.1038/456280a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/456280a.html

----------------------
Advance Online Publication
----------------------
Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird
motor pathway pp189-194
Michael A. Long and Michale S. Fee
doi:10.1038/nature07448
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07448.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07448.html

Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating
behaviour pp195-201
Davide Dulcis and Nicholas C. Spitzer
doi:10.1038/nature07569
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07569.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07569.html

Deconstructing voltage sensor function and pharmacology in sodium
channels pp202-208
Frank Bosmans, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire and Kenton J. Swartz
doi:10.1038/nature07473
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07473.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07473.html

Structure of the guide-strand-containing argonaute silencing
complex pp209-213
Yanli Wang et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07315
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07315.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07315.html

Complex structure within Saturn's infrared aurora pp214-217
Tom Stallard et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07440
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07440.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07440.html

Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using
ultrafast optical pulses pp218-221
David Press, Thaddeus D. Ladd, Bingyang Zhang and Yoshihisa Yamamoto
doi:10.1038/nature07530
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07530.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07530.html

Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning
transmission X-ray microscopy pp222-225
Emiel de Smit et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07516
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07516.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07516.html

Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability pp226-230
Thomas J. Crowley and William T. Hyde
doi:10.1038/nature07365
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07365.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07365.html

Radiative conductivity in the Earth's lower mantle pp231-234
Alexander F. Goncharov et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07412
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07412.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07412.html

The interaction between predation and competition pp235-238
Peter Chesson and Jessica J. Kuang
doi:10.1038/nature07248
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07248.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07248.html

The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom
genomes pp239-244
Chris Bowler et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07410
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07410.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07410.html

Associative learning of social value pp245-249
Timothy E. J. Behrens, Laurence T. Hunt, Mark W. Woolrich and Matthew F. S.
Rushworth
doi:10.1038/nature07538
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07538.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07538.html

Oligopotent stem cells are distributed throughout the mammalian ocular
surface pp250-254
Francois Majo et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07406
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07406.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07406.html

Stereocilin-deficient mice reveal the origin of cochlear waveform
distortions pp255-258
Elisabeth Verpy et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07380
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07380.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07380.html

A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse
and human intestinal Paneth cells pp259-263
Ken Cadwell et al.
doi:10.1038/nature07416
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/abs/nature07416.html?lang=en
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v456/n7219/full/nature07416.html
 
    
 


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